quick guide to

Beef Cattle Judging


Where to start

Form and function

What to look for

How judging works

Young Judging speech


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Young judging provides young people with the opportunity to develop lifelong skills in visually assessing livestock and public speaking through comparing animals against each other. These skills not only develop a better understanding of beef cattle, they also enable young people to make a valuable contribution to the industry.

Stakeholders in the livestock industry invest time and money into continually improving their stock, which is crucial to Australia’s reputation as a world leader – the beef export industry alone is worth about $10 billion each year. The best way to do this is to evaluate – or judge – the characteristics of their animals. It’s important to be able to identify and understand why certain traits have significant commercial value. Not only animals featuring these qualities will have higher value at sale, but breeders will want to pass these desirable traits onto the next generation to improve the overall herd.

Being able to understand and identify these characteristics and orally present to an audience are skills that can be learnt and take practice. Importantly, this process develops competitors’ confidence, decision making and attention to detail, which are skills that will also translate into future careers.

While many young people become involved in young judging and other agricultural show competitions through their school, tertiary education institution or from a farming background, there are other ways to become involved. By approaching a local show society, members can provide guidance and support to anyone interested in participating. Many shows now hold education days and there are opportunities to connect with farms, studs, saleyards and other local shows to learn more.

Generally, young judges compete at a local show first. Winners then go on to compete at their royal show and from there one competitor will be selected to represent each state or territory at the National Beef Cattle Championship. Young judging is for entrants aged 15 and under 25 years old on May 1 in the year of the competition.

This is intended to be a general guide and there may be some variations in rules and expectations between shows. Individual shows will provide further advice and clarification.

Further reading

To find out more about local shows near you visit https://agshowsaustralia.org.au/shows/ 

The National Beef Cattle Championship rules and regulations can be found here: https://agshowsaustralia.org.au/member-resources/national-competitions-guidelines/

Where to start

There are about 100 different breeds of cattle in Australia, but only a small portion of these will be entered in the show. The most common breeds are red/black Angus, poll/horned Hereford, Shorthorn, Murray Grey, Speckle Park, Simmental, Limousin, Charolais, Brahman, Santa Gertrudis and Droughtmaster.

It is important to learn about the different breeds of livestock as their characteristics can vary significantly between breeds. For example, European breeds like Charolais and Limousin generally grow faster and have more muscle than British breeds, which are earlier maturing and able to gain weight on less feed.

Beef producers generally select their breeds on what is best suited to the climate or environment so it is likely certain breeds will dominate shows depending on their location. For example, in the far north of Australia where the weather is hot and tropical, breeds such as Brahman or Santa Gertrudis perform well, whereas Angus and Hereford are popular in the more temperate southern regions.

Breeds will have differences in their frame size, average weight, production purpose, whether they are an early or late maturing breed and what market they will be sold to.

TOP TIP: Don’t get stuck on the detail of the different breeds. Cattle in each class should be of a similar breed and they should be judged against what makes a good beef type rather than specific breed characteristics.

Further reading

An overview of cattle breeds in Australia can be found at https://agshowsaustralia.org.au/educational-resources/further-reading

Form and function

When judging it is important to consider the “form” and “function” of the animal as this determines what it has been grown for. In the case of beef cattle, these have all been grown for the function of producing beef. However, their function varies depending on their sex. For example, bulls (males), cows and heifers (females) are all breeding cattle so are kept for restocking as well as for producing beef, whereas steers don’t breed, so are solely kept for their carcass and are sold into the market at a young age.

Their function will influence their form and characteristics. The reason we focus on these through judging is to identify their best qualities, as cattle producers want to pass on these superior traits to the next generation to continually improve their herd. However, when judging a steer, the focus is on the carcass, as high-quality meat fetches a higher price on the market. Remember, a good structure enables an animal to walk, feed and breed to its optimal ability.

TOP TIP: Good practice is to quickly let the handler of the animal know you are going to touch or assess their animal.

What to look for

You will need to get to know the different parts of the animal and be able to name these correctly, as these will be the judging points. Remember these will differ between the animal’s purpose. For example, a bull and steer are both males, but they have differences in their appearance as a bull is bred for reproducing and has reproductive organs and different muscular structure, while a steer is bred only for the meat market and the muscle will need to be carefully inspected as this affects the cuts of meat, particularly along the forearm, shoulder and hindquarter.


  • Start from the feet and work your way up.

Further reading

For a comprehensive visual guide to all the judging points and what an ideal animal looks like: https://agshowsaustralia.org.au/member-resources/national-competitions-guidelines/

How judging works

The animals are divided into three classes comprising four bulls, four steers, and four females (cows or heifers) and will be judged by competitors one at a time. The classes can be a mix of breeds, but usually they will be similar.

Animals in each class will be labelled with a number, their age, weight and measurements.

Visual judging will take place first, where the animals will be paraded and lined up in front of the competitors for eight minutes. During this time, competitors will complete a visual judging card. These cards are simple, with competitors ranking the animals in order from first to fourth place.

Before oral judging starts, each competitor will ask the Ring Steward to line up the cattle in the competitor’s placing order: first, second, third and fourth. They are allowed one minute to parade the animals for one circuit of the judging ring. Competitors will be judged on their ranking, compared to the findings of an experienced judge.

Competitors who score high enough in the visual section will go on to compete in the oral section where they choose one class for their presentation.

Competitors speak for two minutes to explain their reasoning behind how they’ve placed the animals. It’s important to stick to the allocated time – for every 10 seconds a competitor goes over their time, they will be penalised one point.

Young Judging speech

Competitors in the oral section are scored on their accuracy of observation, their ability to compare animals, speaking skills and their own presentation.

Have a start, middle and end: begin with an introduction (for example, acknowledging those involved and provide a short overview of characteristics an ideal animal would have in that class), then go into the comparisons of pairs, and finish with a conclusion (for example, thank people for listening). The speech only goes for two minutes, so keep to the point.

The main goal is to explain to the judge why you have placed the animals in the order you have chosen by comparing the animals in pairs – first place with second, second against third, and finally third against fourth. Rather than describing each animal individually, competitors draw comparisons against the attributes of each pair. For example, “In the top pair, I placed animal numbered [eg four] ahead of [eg one] because … [highlight the strengths then weaknesses, if any are present].” Remember to prioritise the most important reasons first and pick only two or three differences.

Judging is subjective, while there are characteristics about an animal to look for, what the judges will be paying close attention to is how clearly competitors express their decision and how they validate it.

It’s not all about the animals – the competitor’s appearance is also important, and judges can mark down for poor presentation. Competitors must wear closed in shoes and a long-sleeved shirt or jacket. Long hair must be tied back, and only minimal jewellery is allowed. Male competitors must wear a tie and long pants. Chewing gum and shorts are definitely not permitted. Female competitors may consider wearing a tie or neck scarf or necklace.


  • Speak clearly and concisely – show you believe in what you are saying and pack a punch with your words. 
  • Deliver your speech to the championship judge – remember eye contact.
  • Don’t call the final animal “last”, as this can be insulting to the owner. Instead refer to it being fourth placed.
  • Get to know the terminology and don’t be afraid to implement it – the judges will be looking out for it.
  • Choose one end of the animal to begin speaking on and move to the other end, from front to rear or vice versa. This will help organise your presentation and make it easier for people to follow what you are saying.
  • Be as descriptive and explanatory as possible. For example, use gender terms rather than “it” and go beyond saying one characteristic is “better” when comparing a pair by highlighting why the characteristic is superior.

Further reading

For a comprehensive list of cattle terminology check out https://agshowsaustralia.org.au/educational-resources/further-reading

This educational content has been developed as part of the Project: Education of Sustainable Agri-Food Production Program. This project is jointly funded through Agricultural Shows Australia and the Australian Government’s National Landcare Program

promoting the role and significance of Australian Agricultural Shows to the wider community

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